By Yuri M. Yevdokimov, V.I. Salyanov, S.V. Semenov, S.G. Skuridin
The discovery of the spatial constitution of the double-stranded DNA molecule is among the maximum achievements of technology. it can no longer be an exaggeration to claim that the DNA double helix is a extraordinary image of recent biology.
Divided into 3 elements, DNA Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions and Nanoconstructions covers the data almost immediately to be had at the condensation of varied sorts of DNA and describes sensible functions of the unusual homes of the liquid-crystalline particles.
- Part 1 describes the most equipment used for condensation of linear excessive- and low-molecular mass DNA, together with their complexes with polycations and round DNA
- Part 2 compares the nation and reactivity of double-stranded nucleic acid molecules mounted spatially within the liquid-crystalline besides as the similar molecules less than intracellular conditions
- Part 3 explains how the invention of the elemental rules underlying the formation of nucleic acid liquid-crystalline dispersion debris opens a gate for the operational use of those rules within the sector of nanotechnology and biosensorics
With precise insurance of DNA liquid crystals, this publication presents an knowing of the data almost immediately on hand at the condensation of assorted types of DNA. Double-stranded nucleic acids, spatially equipped in a liquid-crystalline constitution, characterize a big polyfunctional software for molecular biology and nanobiotechnology. the potential of programmed and regulated adaptations within the houses of those molecules and within the features in their liquid-crystalline dispersions, presents huge innovations for the formation of biologically lively third-dimensional constructions with certain, largely acceptable properties.
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Extra info for DNA Liquid-Crystalline Dispersions and Nanoconstructions
B. P. Macromolecular crowding: biophysical, and physiological consequences. Annu. Rev. Biomol. , 1993, vol. 22, p. 27–65. xxxii Introduction 6. H. J. Liquid Crystals and Biological Structures. New York: Academic Press, 1979. p. 200. 7. Z. Liquid crystalline biopolymers: A new arena for liquid crystal research. J. Mol. Liquids, 2003, vol. 106, p. 43–45. 8. -L. M. Complementary recognition in condensed DNA: Accelerated DNA denaturation. J. Mol. , 1991, vol. 222, p. 1085–1108. 9. , Burdzy, K. et al.
By analogy with polyphosphates, we can assume that one of the reasons that support the stability of an expanded conformation of the DNA double-stranded molecules in water–salt solutions is the tendency of the phosphate groups to form as many contacts with water molecules as possible. The screening of a significant number of phosphate groups in DNA molecules with alkali metal cations must cause, at least, a decrease in the DNA molecules’ solubility for the polyphosphates as well. Under such conditions, DNA molecules will form a structure with minimal number of contacts with water molecules, that is, at least the DNA molecules will tend to form aggregates.
Moreover, polycations (particularly polyamines) can connect adjacent phosphates of one chain or different chains; this process cannot only result in the formation of different condensed DNA forms but also finely adjust the properties of the forming structures. 3 MODELS OF HIGH-MOLECULAR-MASS DNA CONDENSATION IN WATER–POLYMERIC SOLUTIONS It is obvious that two different approaches to the realization of DNA condensation are possible. According to the first approach, DNA molecules should be placed into a water–salt solution with properties providing the conditions for the phase exclusion of these molecules; according to the second approach, even in a common water–salt solution, the attraction between DNA molecules can be achieved with the help of polycations that neutralize the negative charges of the DNA phosphate groups.