Crystals: growth, morphology, and perfection by Ichiro Sunagawa

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By Ichiro Sunagawa

How do crystals nucleate and develop? Why and the way do crystals shape one of these big choice of morphologies? those questions were posed because the 17th century, and are nonetheless extremely important for contemporary expertise and figuring out the Earth's inside and formation of minerals via dwelling organisms. together with quite a number case reviews of advanced platforms, from diamond, calcite and pyrite to crystals shaped via biomineralization, this ebook establishes the atomic tactics at the back of crystal progress.

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Through competition between the supply of solute component from the bulk phase and that of the solvent component by the desolvation process, the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer will vary according to the change in concentration, or buoyancy-driven convection will occur when crystals are growing in the gravity field of the Earth. This change is related to the bulk supersaturation. In Fig. 6, changes in behavior of the diffusion boundary layer around a growing Ba(NO3)2 crystal in aqueous solution are illustrated in relation to the bulk supersaturation ␴.

If the system remains for a long period under the same conditions, such as in geological processes, it is assumed to have reached equilibrium, and can be a subject of thermodynamic discussion. In dealing with systems of metals, alloys, ceramics, and silicates, as well as growing single crystals, phase diagrams are the prerequisite in understanding the basic phase relations. There are many forms of phase diagram. When trying to grow crystals whose phase diagrams are not known, we must first prepare a preliminary phase diagram.

B) The vertical axis indicates the driving force, and the horizontal axis shows the ␣ factor. A is the stable area for a smooth interface; B is the stable area for a rough interface. corresponded to a smooth interface. In this calculation, he used the so-called Jackson ␣ factor defined by ␣ ϭ ␰ (L/kTM), where ␰ is the orientation factor, L is the heat of fusion, k is the Boltzmann constant, and TM is the melting point. 11 (a) shows the results of Jackson’s calculation, and indicates that there are two types of curves depending on the ␣ factor.

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