Concepts in Programming Languages by John C. Mitchell

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By John C. Mitchell

For undergraduate and starting graduate scholars, this textbook explains and examines the primary innovations utilized in smooth programming languages, comparable to services, kinds, reminiscence administration, and regulate. The booklet is exclusive in its complete presentation and comparability of significant object-oriented programming languages. Separate chapters research the background of items, Simula and Smalltalk, and the renowned languages C++ and Java. the writer offers foundational subject matters, similar to lambda calculus and denotational semantics, in an easy-to-read, casual sort, concentrating on the most insights supplied through those theories. complicated issues comprise concurrency, concurrent object-oriented programming, application elements, and inter-language interoperability. A bankruptcy on common sense programming illustrates the significance of specialised programming tools for yes different types of difficulties. This booklet will provide the reader a greater knowing of the problems and tradeoffs that come up in programming language layout, and a greater appreciation of the benefits and pitfalls of the programming languages they use.

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Lisp syntax is extremely simple. 1) easy, all operations are written in prefix form, with the operator in front of all the operands. Here are some examples of Lisp expressions, with corresponding infix form for comparison. Lisp prefix notation Infix notation (+ 1 2 3 4 5) (∗ (+ 2 3) (+ 4 5)) (f x y) (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5) ((2 + 3) ∗ (4 + 5)) f(x, y) Atoms Lisp programs compute with atoms and cells. Atoms include integers, floating-point numbers, and symbolic atoms. Symbolic atoms may have more than one letter.

Mark-and-Sweep Garbage Collection 1. Set all tag bits to 0. 2. Start from each location used directly in the program. Follow all links, changing the tag bit of each cell visited to 1. 3. Place all cells with tags still equal to 0 on the free list. Garbage collection is a very useful feature, at least as far as programmer convenience goes. There is some debate about the efficiency of garbage-collected languages, however. Some researchers have experimental evidence showing that garbage collection adds of the order of 5% overhead to program execution time.

Cons Cells Cons cells (or dotted pairs) are the basic data structure of the Lisp abstract machine. Cons cells have two parts, historically called the address part and the decrement part. 4 Innovations in the Design of Lisp ever used today. Only the letters a and d remain in the acronyms car (for “contents of the address register”) and cdr (for “contents of the decrement register”). We draw cons cells as follows: car cdr Cons cells provide a simple model of memory in the machine, are efficiently implementable, and are not tightly linked to particular computer architecture.

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