By Michael E. Fleet
content material: 1. advent --
2. Apatite-type constitution --
three. Crystal chemistry and geochemistry --
four. Synthesis of carbonate apatites --
five. X-ray constructions --
6. Chemical spectroscopy --
7. Carbonate apatite crystal chemistry --
eight. organic apatites.
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Extra info for Carbonated hydroxyapatite : materials, synthesis, and applications
The hardness and chemical resistance of dental enamel is commonly attributed in part to the addition of minor and trace amounts of ﬂuoride into the hydroxylapatite nanocrystals. More loosely bound anions, vacancies, and complex anions have a tendency to be locally ordered in c-axis columns, forming onedimensional domains. The domain ordering of chlorapatite (CLAP) has already been discussed (Fig. 4). 754 A) a formula of Ca15 (PO4 )9 IO (Z = 2). 75. 2 Summary of some apatite substitutions relative to ideal FAP, Ca10 (PO4 )6 F2 1 Channel (X ) anion X − = F− = 2F− X 2− + A+ + = Ca2+ + F− +2 = Ca2+ + 2F− = PO4 3− + F− A + + BO4 2− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− = 2F− BO4 2− + BO4 4− = 2PO4 3− CrO4 2− + SiO4 4− = 2PO4 3− +2 = Ca 2+ = Ca 2+ − + 2F A+ + = Ca2+ + F− 3+ = 2Ca A + BO4 2− = Ca A +A + + PO4 2A + BO4 = 2Ca 2+ 2A 3+ + = 3Ca2+ 2RE3+ + = 3Ca2+ + PO4 3− RE3+ + X 2− = Ca2+ + F− RE3+ + A + = 2Ca2+ RE3+ + SiO4 4− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− 2RE3+ + = PO4 3− + F− = 3Ca2+ Bi3+ + O2− = Ca2+ + F− VO4 3− = PO4 3− SO4 2− + SiO4 4− = 2PO4 3− A 3+ + BO4 4− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− 5− + A 3+ + BO4 4− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− AsO4 3− = PO4 3− 3− Bi3+ + O2− = Ca2+ + F− 3+ = PO4 3− + F− 4− 2A 3+ + BO4 5− = 2Ca2+ + PO4 3− 2+ 2+ BO4 4− + SiO4 + 2BO4 2− = Ca2+ + 2PO4 3− + = 2Ca2+ BO4 3− = PO4 3− Large ( A) cation A U4+ + + 2BO4 2− = Ca2+ + 2PO4 3− A 3+ + X 2− = Ca2+ + F− 2+ = 2Ca2+ = 2Ca2+ Phosphate group (BO4 ) BO4 4− + CO3 2− + A 4+ + Th4+ + Na+ + SO4 2− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− K+ + SeO4 2− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− SiO4 4− + (SO4 ,CO3 )2− = 2PO4 3− 2RE3+ + BO4 5− = 2Ca2+ + PO4 3− Type B carbonate + 2CO3 2− = Ca2+ + 2PO4 3− CO3 2− + SiO4 4− = 2PO4 3− Na+ + CO3 2− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− H3 O+ + CO3 2− = Ca2+ + PO4 3− 1.
0 1. 1–5 recalculated from Table 1 of McClellan and Lehr:65 1. Florida; 2. Morocco; 3. North Carolina; 4. Tennessee; 5. Israel; 6. ideal FAP; 7. 5 35 September 23, 2014 16:41 PSP Book - 9in x 6in 03-Michael-Fleet-c03 36 Crystal Chemistry and Geochemistry bulk sample, introducing the possibility that they might be slightly overdetermined. 4z F2 . It is assumed that all carbonate substitutes for phosphate and that ﬂuoride blocks the entry of carbonate into the apatite channel. 5. 1 are for natural apatites that only approximately correspond to ideal compositions.
86 type AB CHAP was prepared by reaction of CaCO3 (calcite) with (NH4 )H2 PO4 solution under hydrothermal conditions. 2 M (NH4 )H2 PO4 solution in a stainless steel autoclave at 250◦ C and 1 kbar for 10 days. A minor amount of 2 M NH4 OH was added to the starting solution to bring the pH to 9. The reaction product of white color with a grain size of about 10 μm was washed with distilled water and then dried in air. 2 g CaHPO4 . Each solution was boiled at approximately 100◦ C for several hours.