By Stanley Shostak
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Additional info for Cancer stem cells : the cutting edge
BMC Cancer, 9, 202. ; Ginestier, C. & Birnbaum, D. (2010). Cancer stem cells: just sign here! Cell Cycle, 9, 2, pp. 229-30. ; Birnbaum, D. S. (2008). Cancer stem cells in breast: current opinion and future challenges. Pathobiology, 75, pp. 75-84. W. et al. (2010). Perivascular nitric oxide activates notch signaling and promotes stem-like character in PDGFinduced glioma cells. Cell Stem Cell, 6, 2, pp. 141-152. ; Howell, A. S. (2003). Regulation of human breast epithelial stem cells. Cell Proliferation, 36, Suppl 1, pp.
In a study performed in human breast cancer, the high expression of Notch intracellular domain in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has been shown to correlate with reduced disease-free survival time at five years after surgery (Farnie & Clarke, 2007). , 2010). Oncogenic or tumour suppressor genes, such as HER-2, PTEN and p53, have also been implicated in the regulation of CSC self-renewal. These genes are usually impaired in CSCs, 18 Cancer Stem Cells - The Cutting Edge leading to uncontrolled self-renewal, which in turn can generate resistant tumours in relation to current therapeutic approaches.
Thus, the CSC model suggests that tumour progression, metastasis and recurrence after therapy can be driven by a rare subgroup of tumoural cells that have the capacity to self-renew, while the bulk of the tumour does not have this capacity. Therefore, the deregulation of this self-renewal process leading to stem cell expansion may be a key event in carcinogenesis, and while self-renewal can drive tumorigenesis, the differentiation process may contribute to tumour phenotypic heterogeneity (Kakarala & Wicha, 2008; Shay & Wright, 2010).