Cancer — Between Glycolysis and Physical Constraint by Laurent Schwartz MD, PhD (auth.)

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By Laurent Schwartz MD, PhD (auth.)

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The relationship may often be one of chance alone, since not all cirrhotics develop cancer. Nonetheless, diseases that cause cirrhosis also increase the risk ofhepatocarcinoma (2). Furthermore, the more disorganized the liver becomes, the higher the risk of hepatocarcinoma (2,3). Lung Cancer Similarly, lung cancer is most common among patients suffering from any form of chronic lung disease (4,5). History of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, primary lung fibrosis, chronic lung infection, and even lung irradiation is associated with increased cancer risk (4,5).

During embryogenesis, bones of the diaphysis are formed on an initial cartilaginous model. Cartilage is later replaced by bone; this process is called enchondral ossification (2). The long bones of the hand end near the joint in a separate epiphysis, which is ossified during childhood. The epiphysis becomes fused with the shaft of the bone (diaphysis) at puberty when growth comes to an 30 4 Extracellular Constraints Regulate Cell Differentiation end (2). The epiphyses undergo a characteristic series of events: central calcification, absorption of cartilage and enchondral ossification (2).

Treatments, which simply inhibit cell-to-cell attachment, drastically decrease the ability to form tumors (9,10). Just as for the graft of an organ, tumor cells only grow in syngeneic animals or in an immunosuppressed host (3,4). Tumor Cells Alone Are Not Enough for Cancer Diagnosis The diagnosis of infection is based on finding of a germ. On the contrary, the finding of a single "cancer cell" is not sufficient for a diagnosis of cancer. Today, the pathologist establishes a diagnosis of cancer through microscopic examination of a tumoral fragment.

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