Brain Edema XV by Toshihiko Kuroiwa M.D. (auth.), Yoichi Katayama, Takeshi

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By Toshihiko Kuroiwa M.D. (auth.), Yoichi Katayama, Takeshi Maeda, Toshihiko Kuroiwa (eds.)

More than 60 papers written via across the world well-known specialists hide the huge spectrum of mind edema. the most themes handled are: ischemia & hemorrhage, trauma (experimental and clinical), cerebral hemorrhage, tumor, hydrocephlaus & intracranial strain (ICP), neuromonitoring & neuroimaging, remedies, blood mind barrier, and miscellaneous.

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Immediately after occlusion, all 66 ischemic animals showed abnormal respiration and cyanosis owing to paralysis of their respiratory muscles, which are innervated bilaterally from the cerebral cortex, and 32 % of them died within 20 min. The surviving animals showed abnormal hyper-respiration. 0 ml of carbon-black 20 U. Ito et al. 12 suspension (Pelican, carbon-black ink) via a femoral vein for 30 s prior to decapitation, and then immediately immersionfixed the brains in 10 % phosphate-buffered formaldehyde.

Ito U, Hakamata Y, Kawakami E, Oyanagi K (2011) Temporary cerebral ischemia results in swollen astrocytic end-feet that compress microvessels and lead to delayed focal cortical infarction. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:328–338 7. Kahn K (1972) The natural course of experimental cerebral infarction in the gerbil. Neurology 22:510–515 8. Kirino T (1982) Delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampus following ischemia. Brain Res 239:57–69 9. Levine S, Payan H (1966) Effects of ischemia and other procedures on the brain and retina of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

Each behavior could be scored as points, and the total score of each animal was calculated (maximal total score: 25 points; Table 1). We classified the gerbils according to the total score: 0 as strokenegative, 1–9 as pseudo-positive, and more than 10 as strokepositive animals. Of the 282 animals evaluated, 42–43 % were positive for stroke, 47–53 % were negative, and the Cerebral Ischemia Model Using Mongolian Gerbils remainder were indefinite. We permanently occluded the left common carotid arteries of male Mongolian gerbils of 60–80 g and various ages.

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