By Gene Likens, F.Herbert Bormann
After we initially released Biogeochemistry of a Forested atmosphere in 1977, the Hubbard Brook environment research (HBES) were in life for 14 years, and we integrated info via 1974, or a biogeo chemical list of eleven years. Now our non-stop, long term biogeo chemical files hide greater than 31 years, and there were many adjustments. the main remarkable switch, although, is that 3 of our coauthors at the unique quantity are actually deceased. they're deeply overlooked in such a lot of methods. even with the longer files, various traits, and new insights, we think that the elemental suggestions and methods we awarded in 1977 symbolize the main worthwhile contribution of the unique variation. they're nonetheless legitimate and worthwhile, relatively for an introductory research of, or path in, biogeochemistry. Our aim during this revision is to maintain those fea tures, right mistakes, and revise or do away with deceptive or ambiguous temporary facts (11 years!), whereas keeping nearly the unique size and the modest fee.
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Additional resources for Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem
FIGURE 16. Relationship between nitrate and sulfate concentrations in stream water. Data were obtained weekly during October through May from 1964 to 1974. 54. inverse relationship has a strong seasonal feature. Streamwater concentrations of NOa generally reach a maximum during the late winter, whereas concentrations ofSO~- at that time are at a minimum. Although there has been no consistent decline in stream-water sulfate concentrations since 1968, sulfate concentrations in 1%9-1970 were about 10% less than the long-term average and the input of sulfate during 1968-1972 was generally lower than in other years (see Table 10).
Both gases and small aerosols may be transported long distances in the atmosphere. These chemicals therefore exist in the atmosphere at Hubbard Brook in much higher concentrations than that expected from the local environment, and their dry deposition is underestimated by bulk precipitation collectors. This matter is considered more fully in later sections. , 1967). Furthermore, a study done in 1971-1972 indicated no significant difference between the content of Ca2 +, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Na +, or Cl- in precipitation samples from the experimental watersheds at 610 m MSL and those from the Forest Service Headquarters Station at 252 m MSL.
Our model of the forest ecosystem (Figure 1) suggests a number of functions internal to the forested ecosystem that may be affected by acid precipitation. For example, leaching of substances from the canopy can be speeded up and, in fact, that seems to be the case. Eaton et al. (1973) found that 90% of the H+ ions striking the summer canopy of the forest were consumed within the canopy, presumably releasing an equivalent amount of basic cations. Laboratory studies of seedlings of major tree species at Hubbard Brook (Wood and Bormann, 1974, 1975) indicated increased leaching of cations as the H+ content of artificially applied mist increased.