By Radhika Herzberger
The Viikyapadiya of Bhartrhari and the Pramii1Jasamuccaya of Dignaga • are seminal texts within the heritage of historical Indian philosophy. One textual content bargains with grammar, the opposite with good judgment, either are the paintings of dedicated metaphysicians. Written inside a span of under 100 years, among the 5th and the 6th centuries A.D., those texts have normally been taken care of individually, as representing self sustaining faculties of concept. This essay makes an attempt to interpret those texts together, as a discussion among a grammarian and a truth seeker. this manner of impending those texts highlights unforeseen features of Bhartrhari's and Dignaga's theories of language and is meant to spot the person achievements of every. particularly, this remedy is an workout in writing the highbrow historical past of a interval in time, instead of a background of a college of philosophy. the present view of Bhartrhari holds that his linguistic innovations are usually not intrinsic to his metaphysics. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Bhartrhari's metaphysics underlie his linguistic suggestions and articulate their presuppositions. the present view of Dignaga continues that for him language bargains with illusory entities and needs to falsify what's genuine. The conclusions reached within the current essay are that Dignaga's logical ideas are designed to make sure that in utilizing language one isn't dedicated to a trust in fictional entities. My debt to trendy scholarship within the box is considerable.
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Extra resources for Bhartṛhari and the Buddhists: An Essay in the Development of Fifth and Sixth Century Indian Thought
Xi. 25. Randle, 1924, p. 398. CHAPTER TWO BHARTRHARI ON INDIVIDUALS AND UNIVERSALS In the fifth and subsequent centuries philosophers' ideas of language were greatly enhanced by the work of Bhartrhari. He was primarily a grammarian, but also a philosopher and possibly a poet. C. grammarian Patanjali. It had been an ancient belief among Indian grammarians that theirs was "the science", the fundamental knowledge that laid the foundations of thought. , however, Bhart~hari mourned the loss of this tradition.
This interpretation brings Kiityiiyana's quality in line with arthajiiti (thing universal) mentioned in JS6. I can readily see the rationale for this shift in emphasis, although no justification is given in the context, either by Bhartrhari or Helaraja. The justification is this: if names apply to their objects uniformly, then the ground for the application of names must also be uniform. And Bhartrhari is acutely conscious that qualities are nonuniform and, for that reason, beyond the scope of language.
And just as the dye achieves a complicated effect when it is transferred onto the garment, so also a name achieves a complicated effect when it is attached onto an external object. Both effects are due to the essence/universal which, located in one place, is transferred onto another. I shall presently describe what this effect is. But I must first point out that the stanza contains a two-fold justification of Bhart~hari's newer theory of names given in JS6: the first consists in observing that the older theory sanctioned a transference of names from one substatum to another, the giving of names to x, when they primarily belong to y, because x and y happen to be conjoined in some way.