By Alan Corney

This ebook discusses many advances in optical physic, and is aimed toward complicated undergraduates taking classes in atomic physics, or graduate scholars within the fields of lasers, astrophysics, and actual chemistry. The e-book is meant almost always for experimentalists, and the interplay of electromagnetic radiation with loose atoms is brought utilizing classical or semi-classical calculations anywhere attainable. issues mentioned comprise the spontaneous emission of radiation, inspired transitions and the houses of gasoline and turnable dye lasers, and the physics and functions of resonance fluorescence, optical double resonance, optical pumping, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments.

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**Example text**

The first represents the rate at which energy flows into the closed volume across the bounding surface. The vector is called the Poynting vector. 5). The second term represents the decrease in the energy stored in the electromagnetic fields within the volume concerned. The quantity may be regarded as the energy density of the electromagnetic field. The Poynting vector N represents the instantaneous rate at which energy flows through unit area, but in a sinusoidal wave E_ and H are rapidly oscillating functions of time and we are generally interested in the average value of N over a complete period.

Associated with the time-averaged flux, N, in the direction k is an energy density U given by Uk = N/c. relativistic energy equation The shows that there is also an associated momentum density 2 G_ = N/c since the rest mass m,. of a photon is zero. 66). 76) we retain the intermediate field contribution to E_ which varies as (1/r ). 69), we obtain a result which is independent of the radius r of the absorbing sphere: We observe that although the radiated energy is. carried by the fields in the wave zone, the angular momentum is trans- 42 REVIEW OF CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS ported by a subtle combination of the intermediate zone E_ field and the wave zone H field.

7). 6. 5 illustrate in a direct and simple way the properties of electromagnetic waves. However, we have avoided the much more difficult problem of how these fields are generated by time-varying distributions of current and charge. E and H. 9). E and the electrostatic potential for problems involving static fields. 52) and would be difficult to solve as they stand. 13) without affecting the values of E_ and H obtained. 52) un- couples those equations, enabling them to be solved for $ and A separately: These are known as the inhomogeneous wave equations.