Applied Mineralogy: Applications in Industry and Environment by Swapna Mukherjee

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By Swapna Mukherjee

This e-book covers the complete spectrum of mineralogy and consolidates its functions in several fields. half I starts off with the very uncomplicated idea of mineralogy describing intimately the results of many of the features of mineral chemistry, crystallographic constructions and their results generating diversified mineral homes. half II of the e-book describes diverse elements of mineralogy like geothermobarometry, mineral thermodynamics and part diagrams, mineral exploration and research, and marine minerals. eventually half III handles the functions in business, medicinal and environmental mineralogy besides valuable and semiprecious stone reviews. many of the analytical ideas and their importance in dealing with particular forms of mineralogical difficulties also are covered.

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The vector between any two lattice points (r) satisfies the relationship, r = na + pb + qc, where n, p and q are integers. The simplest repeating unit in the arrangement of a crystal is called the unit cell. It is the smallest unit of a mineral that retains all of the physical, chemical and crystallographic properties of a mineral. The unit cell comprises the symmetry of each holohedral class of the crystal system. There is no fixed relationship between the positions of a unit cell and the lattice that is associated with it.

Mineral Crystals and Structural Classification 51 Interstitials: Atoms that are squeezed in between regular lattice sites. If the interstitial atom is of the same species as the lattice atoms, it is called selfinterstitial. They are generally high energy configurations. Small atoms in some crystals can occupy interstices without high energy, such as hydrogen in palladium. Interstitial impurity: The atoms are often incorporated at a regular atomic site in the crystal structure. They introduce less distortion to the lattice and are more common in real materials and more mobile.

26 Essentials of Mineralogy Fig. 1: The 32 point groups. Crystallographic axes: These are imaginary reference lines constructed through crystals and in most instances coincide with symmetry axes or normals to symmetry planes. These axes aid in the orientation of crystals and help to explain other crystal concepts like unit cells and Miller indices (to be discussed later). Crystallographic axes can also be defined as the imaginary lines in a crystal that can be used as a frame of reference for naming crystal faces.

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