By D.R. Philpott, R.H. Barnard
Plane Flight offers exact actual, instead of mathematical, descriptions of the foundations of airplane flight. This renowned textual content offers mechanical engineering and aeronautical engineering scholars an invaluable advent to the topic. The fourth variation has been up to date to incorporate very important fresh advancements akin to unmanned air automobiles and the low orbit space-plane
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Additional info for Aircraft Flight: A description of the physical principles of aircraft flight
On a straight-tapered or untapered wing, an elliptical distribution of lift may be produced by using a variation of incidence along the span; in other words, by twisting the wing. Spanwise variation of wing-section camber is also used in some designs. For a given aircraft weight and ﬂight altitude, the use of a ﬁxed amount of twist or camber variation can only produce a truly elliptical lift distribution at one speed. This is not necessarily a major objection, however, as many other aspects of aircraft design are optimised for a preferred combination of speed, height and weight, or cruise condition.
QXD 14/9/09 15:18 Page 36 36 LIFT Spoiled for choice Until the mid-1940s, the only method of lift generation was by means of attached ﬂow on a ﬁxed, or occasionally, a rotating wing. From the descriptions above, you will see that nowadays, several different methods are used. In addition, as we show later, even with a conventional wing, the physical mechanism of lift generation changes at high speeds and at very high altitudes. We will deal with the details and implications of these newer methods in subsequent chapters.
There is therefore a rearward drag component of this force. This type of drag force was at one time called induced drag, but the more descriptive term trailing vortex drag is now usually preferred. We shall deal with drag forces in more detail in Chapter 4. Another consequence of downwash is that the air ﬂow approaching the tailplane is deﬂected downwards, so that the effective angle of attack of the tailplane is reduced. The downwash depends on the wing circulation and therefore varies with ﬂight conditions.