By Graeme Barker
This broad learn files the long term human payment historical past of the Biferno Valley in central-southern Italy, from its earliest profession within the Stone Age correct as much as the current day. Integrating the ideas of archaeology, background and geography, Barker indicates how cost within the Valley is inextricably associated with the parallel tale of panorama improvement, his topics and topics together with: ways to Mediterranean panorama background; the trendy panorama; Methodologies of the Biferno Valley Survey; The usual panorama and its evolution; Early prehsitoric payment; the 1st agricultural groups; Iron Age chiefdoms (c.1000-500 BC); Pentri, Frentani and the beginnings of urbanization (c.500--80 BC); Roman cities and territories (c.80 BC-600 AD); The evolution of hilltop villages (AD 600-1500); Feudalism and the `Southern query' (AD 1500 to the present).
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Extra resources for A Mediterranean Valley: Landscape Archaeology and Annales History in the Biferno Valley
Today the principal road and rail routes of the eastern side of the peninsula pass through Molise along the coast, along the line of a principal road of Roman times. A reflection of the openness of this part of the Biferno to the Adriatic sphere was the settlement here of Albanian refugees from the Turks in the 15th and 16th centuries. Their major settlements in the valley were Montecilfone and Petacciato on the western side of the valley and Campomarino, Portocannone, and Ururi on the eastern side.
On the other hand, the data base is undoubtedly biased towards the lower valley: the units investigated in the upper, middle, and lower zones consist of, respectively, 30 per cent, 25 per cent and 45 per cent of the total sample investigated.
The other main direction of transhumance is from the Apennines to the Maremma coastal regions along the western littoral of central Italy. Today the flocks are transported between the winter and summer pastures by truck. Earlier this century and at the end of the last century many were taken by train to railheads and walked to the pastures from there. The traditional method, however, was to walk the flocks on foot, using droveroads or tratturi. During this century six major droveroads from the Tavoliere plain crossed the Biferno valley, cutting across the grain of the topography running more or less parallel to the coast before swinging inland to the Abruzzo mountains further up the peninsula.